Neurological Associate Pain Management Center

Vero Beach, Florida

Sympathetic Modulation

Doctor Hooshmand and Eric M. Phillips have co-authored the following article: Sympathetic Modulation.

Below is an abstract from the article Sympathetic Modulation.

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Sympathetic Modulation



H. Hooshmand, M.D., and Eric M. Phillips

Neurological Associates Pain Management Center

Vero Beach, FL 32960



The sympathetic function is modulated at all levels of peripheral and central nervous system from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), to substantia gelatinosa (SG).

At the periphery, the efferent sympathetic nerves control the circulation.  The afferent sympathetic nerves are influenced by the putative effects of acetylcholine and dynorphin on one end, and the substance P (SP) on the other. 

At the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) level of dorsal horn (DH) the superficial layers I-III receives substance P (SP) from the periphery.  The deeper layers IV and V act as inhibitory layers showing high concentrations of dynorphin.

Descriptors. complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), dorsal horn (DH), dorsal root ganglia (DRG), inflammation, plasticity, reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), substance P (SP), substantia gelatinosa (SG), wide dynamic range (WDR)